Biography and Profile of Plato - To increase our science also motivated to take the Positive side of a world leader Plato was born in Athens in 427 BC and died there in 347 S.M. the age of 80 years. He came from a hereditary aristocracy who held political importance in Athenian politics.
He also aspires to be a person since his young country. But political developments in his time did not allow him to follow the path of life he wanted it. His name is Aristokles started. Name of the plateau is given by the teacher. He gained that name in connection with his broad shoulders. Commensurate with a body that tall and straight look on his face, cut his body and his face is beautiful with the corresponding true classic creation of a beautiful human being. Good and harmony over the whole stature.
In a large and healthy body is lodged too deep and penetrating mind. Pointed to his eyes as if he would fill the world who were born with ideals. Future lessons gained little, apart from the general lessons in drawing and painting is connected with the study of music and poetry. he was good at making rhyming essay before adult. As is usual with young people well in the plateau was received instruction from teachers of philosophy. Philosophy of the early lessons gained from kratylos.
Kratylos herakleitos former student who teaches "all gone" like water. Apparently no such doctrine in the heart perched on a tertpengaruh aristocrat by family tradition. Since the age of 20 years following the lessons of Socrates Plato. The lesson that is what gives him satisfaction.
Socrates influence her increasingly profound. He became a faithful disciple of Socrates. Until the end of his life Socrates remains a hero. In all karangann yes dialog shaped, cross swords, Socrates kedudukannay as a leading poet. In this way the teachings of Plato drawn out through the mouth of Socrates. After much distorted view of his philosophy and have been further from the view of his teacher, he continues to do so. Socrates describes as an interpreter in the hearts of the people of Athens are oppressed because of the power to change each other. The overwhelming power of democracy to anarchy and arbitrary replaced respectively by the power of a tyrant and the oligarchy, which finally brought Athens lost to foreign rule. Plato has a privileged position as a philosopher. He was good at poetry and science together., Art and philosophy. The views expressed in the abstract and can even he describes a style that is beautiful. No one can match the previous philosophers in this respect.
There was also afterwards. It considers the penalty imposed an unjust act of drinking poison immense influence on the world view of the plateau. Socrates is a man in his eyes honestly and fairly as possible, people who never make mistakes. Hukumn who inflicted it sees as an unjust act solely, by the people who are not morally responsible.
He was very upset and called himself the father of a child who loses. He was sad but it froze in the establishment of Socrates who refused to be given the opportunity to escape from prison, to warn his teaching "better to suffer injustice than do wrong". Shortly after Socrates died, Plato left Athens. That was the beginning of 12 years he wandered from the year 399 BC at first he went to Megara, where Euclid teaches philosophy. For some time he did not know very well there. There is a story that said that there he made up some dialogue, which of the various terms in a matter of life, based on the teachings of Socrates. Of Megara he went to kyrena, where he deepened his knowledge in a mathematical pliers science teacher was named Theodoros. There he also taught philosophy and authored books.
Then he went to southern Italy and on to Syracuse sisiria island, which at that time was ruled by a tyrant, who was named Dionysios. Dionysios took plato live in his palace. He was proud that among people who are poets from around the world Grik the famous name. Learning plateau there are familiar with the law Dionysios young king named Dion, who eventually became her best friend. Among them there is an agreement, so that plateau affect Dionysios with the teachings of philosophy., In order to achieve a social improvement. As if it came for him to carry out his theory of good government in practice. Has long been embedded in his heart, that the misery in the world will not end before the philosophers become kings or kings become philosophers. But the teachings of Plato who stressed on the moral sense in all his works, gradually dull Dianysios. In the year 367 S.M. plateau after 20 years living in the academia, the receipt of the invitation and urging of Dion to come to Syracuse. Dianysios evil dead. He was succeeded as king by his son by the name of Dionysios II. Dion hopes that the plateau can educate and teach the young king's "view of the philosophy of government liabilities in the opinion of the plateau". attracted by the ideals of government to implement theory in practice, the plateau off to Syracuse. He was greeted with joy by the king. But for the king's, philosophy is not so attractive. Finally intrige, slander, and incitement is rampant in the palace. Dion finally hated by the king and thrown out of Sicily. Any effort to defend plateau unsuccessful. He himself with a new struggle to return to Athens. But six years later in 361 S.M. again captivated the hearts plateau for the third time coming to Syracuse. Dionysios II king with his friend Dion and tried, so he can go back to Syracuse. But the point was not successful. And hope to try once again carry out his ideals tang about good governance in practice fail completely. With patience, the heart of a philosopher he returned to Athens. Since then he focused his attention on Akademi9a as a teacher and author. A philosopher wrote about him szebai pliers following: "do good plateau. He can learn to teach such as Solon and Socrates. He was good at educating young people who want to learn and be able to captivate the hearts and attention on her friends. His students once saying to him like he was dear to them. He was to them is a friend, teacher and guidance ". When a student celebrating her marriage, plato 80-year-old came to the banquet that evening. He also cheerful and happy after a bit late at night, he retired to a quiet corner in the house. there he fell asleep and slept for ever with no back up. The next day the whole of Athens drove him to the grave. Plato was never married and no children. Nephew replacing SPEUSIPPOS Akademia care. The thought that triggered PLATO: The essence of the philosophy of Plato is his opinion about the idea. That is a very difficult teaching memahamkannya. One reason is that the respective ideologies are always evolving ideas about pliers. Beginning with the idea put forward as a theory of logic. Later expanded into a philosophy of life, a common basis for political and social sciences and include religious views. Plato separates the visible reality in the natural birth, where the prevailing view Herakleitos, and understanding the abstract nature where the prevailing view of Parmenides. In the first field are only estimates. Because if everything is flowing with no stop-stop, every item for every person at all times only be imagined as dimukanya. Then the man becomes the size of everything, as said by Protagoras. But knowledge can give you what it is, the idea. Applicability idea that does not depend on the views and opinions of the people. It arises solely due to the intelligence of thinking. Ith the understanding that the mind is to look for ideas. Idea on hakikatnay already there, just looking to live. Principal review the philosophy of Plato is to seek knowledge about knowledge pliers. He departed from the teachings of his teacher Socrates who said "mind is to know". Budi is based on knowledge requires a doctrine of knowledge as the basis of philosophy. The contradiction between the mind and outlook to the size of the plateau. Understanding of the knowledge contained therein, and mind, he was looking for along with Socrates, the nature and origin entirely different from the scene. Its character is not derived from experience. Landscape only reason to go to understanding. He obtained the reasonable efforts itself. Idea plateau notion, not only understanding the type, but also the shape of the real situation. Idea is not a thought, but a reality. Parmenides opinion about the existence of an eternal and unchanging. But a new plateau in the teachings of pliers is his opinion about a world that does not stature. Grik philosophy before he did not know such a world picture of the world. also in the mind of Parmenides, who fills the fullest, so that in the next existence is no longer an empty place, there is something that stature. Bodied world is a world which can be determined by the views and experiences. In all it's all moving and constantly changing, nothing is permanent and eternal. Of views and experience alone will never achieve the sense of knowledge. Dealing ith the world there is no stature of the idea, the higher level and that the object of knowledge of understanding the intended meaning when it gained the right shape, it does not change again and place in the world of ideas. Idea that's what gave birth to the actual knowledge. On the plateau of the world picture that there are two levels which unite the ideas of the old philosophy. Herakleitos teachings about tang all flow where there is nothing in the world still can fit the stature of the plateau. The visible world contains entities that stature. The visible world contains bodied bodies, which are the object of the opposite view and experience art and constantly changing disebutnyadunia herakleitos always preformance events. There was found on-meneris arise and disappear with no one remained. Parmeides mind is jointed at the one and eliminate the visible remains are numerous and changeable plateau can be placed in a discarnate world, the world of ideas. Plateau in the conception of a world stature and world stature who do not separate at all. This is a continuation rather than his opinion about the difference between the mind and tang sight. Knowledge with the understanding that there are only familiar with the world and not be. Views and experiences about the world that has always been. But the world who was not solely his own. Everywhere have something to do with a discarnate world, the world's idea, which gives meaning and purpose to the world is born. Menurur plateau sense as it shows the wide variety of ideas. Of three terms corresponding to the goods, properties, relationships, there are ideas that coincide. But the idea that the world is a unity in which there are pertingkatan degrees. Idea is the supreme idea of goodness, as God is shaping the world. Plato equates with the sun shining on it. Good idea not only for the purpose of knowledge in the world timblnya born, but also because the growth and development of everything. Idea dalah basic goodness. Because the idea of the world arranged according to the system teleology "an orderly arrangement that is appropriate according to a specific purpose. Because the rays emanating from the idea of goodness, all interested in him and because he was so because the purpose of everything. In a world that he is the cause of the origin daripengetahuan. But because it is in fact none other than the destination ". In a hierarchical system under the idea that goodness is a discarnate spirit world and the world masukke move. Then the idea of beauty that meeting to do with the ultimate idea. He is primarily a form of shadow than good in the real world. Light of the beautiful is what makes life tajub and miss going back to the origin of the world. Wonderful to be a strong liaison work between the invisible world and the world is born. A beautiful soul who incarnated in deeds held adab, the arts, and sciences, education and political effort, eventually rising to the top in the form of beautiful and pure, his native place in a world that no-bodied. Thus the idea so arranged in a row in the sequence covered by the union. In teaching there is a plateau about kosepsi idea that seems odd, but keep his seat, when viewed from the way he thinks. Between the world and the world who was not bodied dibentangkannya a neutral area of separation. Area is the area of mathematical painting: figures and building geometry. The painting is different dengab changing world and a while because he applies it for ever. Its the same idea. He is different from the idea, because the building could be seen and repeatedly described. In this respect it is similar to the goods-bodied. The painting was no mathematical meaning. Plato describes with it in a way, how the soul rises to the top, from the birth dnia look into the world idea. That high can not be achieved simultaneously with a single jump. Mathematics is a good tool to increase gradually, angsr with the proper sequence. Guidance to the world of ideas as well according to the plateau, so that above the entrance to the Academy he sent rekamkan sentence: "people who do not know math do not go here". Plato's Ethics: opinion on ethical jointed plateau beyond existing doctrine of ideas. The duality of the world in theoretical knowledge into practice the continuation of life. Therefore depend on the willingness of an opinion, the value of his will were determined also by that opinion. of actual knowledge that achieved by dialectical reason arises which is higher than that presented by the knowledge of the view. And so, on the plateau there are 2 kinds of reason. First, the philosophy of mind arising from knowledge to understanding. Second, the usual reason that many people get carried away by the habit. Attitude to life that is used not rise from the conviction, but tailored to the moral people in everyday life. Ideal State: The view of the state and extent of the plateau is still adrift in his time. He is more backward looking than the prominent. Grik country at that time was the city. The population is no more than two or three thousand souls. City dwellers are independent people, who have owned land located outside the city is done by the slaves. Among them were merchants, artisans, good art and state officials. According to the custom at that time the rough work done by slaves.
They were not considered a resident for not independent. Plato berpemdapat that in every country all classes and all the people one is merely a tool for the good of all. Well-being of all that is the actual goal. And that's precisely what determines the division of labor. In an ideal state that employers glongan produce, but do not govern. Guards protecting group, but not govern.
Class intellectuals, fed and protected, and they govern. The third kind of mind that are owned by their masinggolongan, the wise, courageous and self-control can be organized with the cooperation of the fourth reason for the community, namely justice.
Donations for the development of logic: First, the essays he wrote in his youth is the time of Socrates were alive until shortly before he died. The books which he wrote at that time in the Apologie, Kriton, Ion, Protagoras, Laches, Politeia Book I, lysis, and Euthyphron Charmides. In Plato's dialogue the whole adhered to the founding of his teacher Socrates. In the books there is no plateau thoughts that arise then the style philosophies., The doctrine of the idea.
Ideals expressed in the writings of the period was the establishment of understanding in the area of ethics. Second, the handicraft of which he wrote the famous preformance as a "transitional period". That time period is also called Megara, the plateau time staying there temporarily. Dialogues allegedly wrote in those days was Gorgias, Kratylos, Menon, Hippias and several others. Development of the mind of Socrates plateau off the line. At vajaran Socrates, who seeks to understand the philosophy of the previous opinion mainly connected orfisisme establishment and Pythagoras. In the opinion of some of the dialogue envisaged tang plateau about life before birth into the world and the soul that lives forever. Here lies the beginning of his mind towards the idea, which later became the center of view of philosophy.
Third, the fruit is prepared in the hands of immaturity. Famous writings of that time and famous of all time is Phaidros, Symposion, and Politeia Phaidon Books II-X. teaching on the subject of mind plato idea and became the basis for the theory of knowledge, metaphysics, physics, psychology, ethics, politics, and aesthetics. Especially in a development Phaidros bright mind. Based on religious views are influenced by the teachings orfisme and Pythagoras, he describes the nature and destiny of the human soul.
In his book politea (republic) are created from time to time reflected in the development of his philosophy of looking for the sense determination about pliers to pad the hang of things in the world are born to eternal idea of majors. Fourth, the fruit is hand written on the day tuanay. Dialogues had written at that time often called Theaitetos, Parmenides, Sophistos, Politicos, Philibos, Timaios, Kritias, and nomoi.
But there are experts who witnessed the authenticity of some of the dialogue. whether the dialog no.2, 3.4 and 5 in this sequence actually written by a plateau?. Perhaps the dialogues were written by students based on the description and the lessons it provided. There is a marked change in the description of the time. idea, which usually includes the whole, is a little backward.
Logic is more prominent position. Attention to circumstances that were born and grew events in history. To understand fully the contents Timaios must have prior knowledge about the sciences special pliers, especially the natural sciences and health sciences. With a description of the plateau lies in the dialogue that brings the reader into the area of cosmology and natural philosophy. The dialogue indicates that the plateau was not only a philosopher who controlled the whole philosophy of the previous Grik, but also learn the various special sciences known in his time. In all it's made up his mind toward one goal ..
Timaios virtually a theological doctrine of the birth of the world and rule the world. Understand about tang plateau formation is based on the opinion of the world Empedocles, that the mini-style composed of four elements of origin, namely fire, air, water, and soil. But about the development process so berlanan pliers opinion. According platop God is the builder of the four elements of nature along by it in various forms into a single unit. Into a form that the soul is God memasaukjkan world to world domination. Therefore, the construction of the world as well as determining the attitude of human life in this world.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PLATO WORKS
Be the Socratic
In the works written in his youth, Plato always show personality and a bouquet of Socrates as the main topic of his essay.
Almost all of Plato's dialogues are written in the tone. In Letter VII, Plato argues that the pen and ink to freeze real thought written in the silent letters. Therefore, he argues, if it thought it should be written, then the most suitable is written in the form of dialogue.
The existence of myths
Plato used myths to explain the doctrine of abstract and adiduniawi
Verhaak characterize the writings of Plato into the literature rather than to the scientific work systematically for the last two characteristics, namely, in his writings and myths contained in the form of dialogue.
VIEWS OF PLATO IDEAS, IDEAS AND WORLD sensory world
Plato's most important contribution is his view of the idea. Plato's view of the ideas influenced by Socrates' view of the definition. Idea is meant by Plato is not the idea intended by modern people. Modern people think the idea is an idea or a response that is in the mind alone. In Plato's ideas are not created by human thought. Idea is not dependent on human thought, but the human mind which depends on the idea. Idea is the image of the subject and the premiere of the reality, nonmaterial, eternal, and unchanging. Idea already exists outside and independent of our thinking. These ideas are related to each other. For example, the idea of two paintings can not be separated from the idea of two, two ideas alone can not separate the idea even. However, in the end there is the highest peak in the relationship between these ideas. This peak is called the idea of "beautiful". This idea goes beyond any existing idea.
Sensory world is a world that includes physical objects are concrete, which can be perceived by our senses. Sensory world is nothing but the reflection or shadow than ideal world. Always there is a change in this sensory world. Everything contained in this mortal physical world, can be damaged, and may die.
World of ideas is the world's only open to our reason. In this world nothing changes, all ideas are eternal and unchangeable. There is only one idea "good", "beautiful". In the world of ideas everything is perfect. This not only refers to the rough stuff that can be held, but also the concepts of mind, the intellectual fruit. Let's say that the concept of "virtue" and "truth".
VIEWS OF PLATO WORKS ART AND BEAUTY
Plato's view of Art
Plato's view of art is influenced by his views on the idea. His attitude toward art is very clear in his Politeia (Republic). Plato's negative view of art. He considered works of art as mimesis mimesos. According to Plato, art is just a clone of the existing reality. Reality that there is an imitation (mimesis) of the original. The original is contained in the idea. The idea is far superior, better, and more beautiful than the real thing.
Plato's view of beauty
Plato's understanding of beauty is influenced his understanding of the sensory world, contained in the Philebus. Plato argues that the real beauty lies in the world of ideas. He argues that simplicity is the hallmark of beauty, both in the universe and in the artwork. But, still, beauty is in the universe is merely superficial beauty and beauty is in the lower tiers.