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Biography of Isaac Newton, Sir Isaac Newton was a physicist, mathematician, astronomer and chemist who came from England. He is also the greatest scientists and most influential in the world who ever lived, was born in Woolsthrope, England, right on Christmas day in 1642, the year coinciding with the death of Galileo. Like the Prophet Muhammad, he was born after his father died he was heliocentric and followers of the most influential scientists in history, even said to be the father of modern physics.
Early times of Isaac Newton
Newton was born in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, hamlet in countyLincolnshire born prematurely, at which time premature infants are not expected presence in the world.His father, Isaac, died three months before the birth of Newton, and two years later his mother, Hannah Ayscough Newton, is married to another man and left Newton with his grandmother. Newton includes the smart kids.
According to the E.T. Bell (1937, Simon and Schuster) and H. Eves:
"Newton started school while living with his grandmother in the village and then sent to a local language school in Grantham where he eventually became the smartest kids in school. When the school at Grantham, he lived in a boarding house owned by a local pharmacist named William Clarke. Before going to school at the University of Cambridge at the age of 19, Newton had established the love with a foster brother William Clarke, Anne Storer. When Newton focused on his lessons, his love story with a more uncertain and ultimately Storer married someone else. Many menegatakan that he, Newton, always remembering his love story next, although Newton never mentioned having a boyfriend and even marry. "
Since the age of 12 to 17 years, Newton was educated at Kings School The school is located in Grantham (his signature is still there in the school library). His family issued a Newton from school on the grounds that he was a farmer alone, however, Newton does not look like his new job.
But in the end after convincing his family and his mother with the help of his uncle and teacher, Newton can finish school at the age of 18 with satisfactory grades.
In the boy he had shown real prowess in the field of mechanics and very skillful use of his hands. Although children with a brilliant brain, the school seemed reluctant and did not attract much attention.
When stepping on puberty, her mother out of school with the hope that his son could be a good farmer. Fortunately the mother could be persuaded, that the main talent lies not there.
At age eighteen he entered the University of Cambridge. This is where Newton is quick to absorb what was then known to science and mathematics and quickly began his own investigation. Between the ages of twenty-one and twenty-seven years he had laid the foundations of scientific theory which, in turn, then change the world.
Mid-17th century was a period of hatchery science. The invention of telescope near the beginning of the century has revolutionized the entire opinion about astrology. English philosopher Francis Bacon and the French philosopher Rene Descartes both call upon scientists throughout Europe for no longer rely on the authority of Aristotle, but to experiment and research on the basic point of departure and his own purposes.
What is proposed by Bacon and Descartes, already practiced by the great Galileo. The use of binoculars, a new discovery for astronomy research by Newton have revolutionized the field investigation, and he did in the mechanics sector has resulted in what is now known as "Newton's laws of motion" of the first.
With a variety of scientific work accomplished, Newton wrote a book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which is described in the book about the theory of gravity in general, under the laws of motion are found, where the objects will be drawn down due to gravity.
Working together with Gottfried Leibniz, Newton developed the theory of calculus.Newton was the first to explain the theory of motion and was instrumental in formulating the circular motion of Kepler's laws, which extend Newton law by assuming that a circular orbit motion is not necessarily a perfect circle (like the elipse, hyperbola and parabola).
Newton discovered the color spectrum when performing experiments with white light through a prism, he also believed that the beam is a collection of particles. Newton also developed the law of cooling in the gain of the binomial theory, and find a principle of momentum and angular momentum.
Opinion of the Head of the Berlin Academy of Sciences of Newton: "Newton was a genius that ever existed and the most fortunate, we can not find more than a world system to be established."
Other great scientists, such as William Harvey, discoverer of blood circulation affairs and governance inventor Johannes Kepler motion of planets around the sun, presents information that is fundamental for the scholars. Even so, pure science is still a hobby of the intellectuals, and still has not been proven, when used in a technology-that science can change the basic pattern of human life as predicted by Francis Bacon.
Although Copernicus and Galileo had kicked aside some stray assumptions about ancient knowledge and has been presenting a more genah understanding of the universe, but no one thought the subject was carefully formulated to be capable of turning the pile sense landless and unfounded as she arranged them in a theory which enables the development of the predictions are more scientific.
None other than Isaac Newton was the one person capable of presenting a collection of neatly summarized the theory and laid the foundation stone of modern science is now the current is so fad.
Newton himself somewhat reluctantly publish and announce its findings. The basic idea was drawn up long before 1669, but many new theories were publicly known for years afterward. The first publication of his findings is concerned penjungkir reversal, the old notion of things light. In a series of careful experiments, Newton discovered the fact that what is commonly called the "white light" is actually none other than that contained a mixture of all colors in the rainbow.
And he was very careful analysis of the legal consequences of reflection and refraction of light. He adhered to the law-in 1668 - designed and well built the first reflecting telescope, binoculars model used by most investigators kemintang star today. This discovery, together with the results obtained in the field of optical experiments that have been diperagakannya, presented by him to the institution of the British royal investigators when he was twenty-nine years.
Newton's success in the field of optics have probably been sufficient to put Newton on the list order this book. Meanwhile, there are still discoveries that are less important in the field of pure mathematics and in the field of mechanics. Largest offerings in the field of mathematics is the discovery of the "integral calculus" which may be solved when he was twenty-three or twenty-four years. This discovery is the most important works in the field of modern mathematics.
Not just like a seed that grew thereof modern mathematical theory, but also furniture that without the inevitable discovery that advancement of modern knowledge that comes after is impossible. Even Newton did not do anything else, the discovery of "integral calculus" it alone is sufficient to lead him into a tall ladder in the list order this book.
But Newton's discoveries is the most important in the field of mechanics, knowledge about the movement of some object. Galileo was the first discoverer of the laws that describe the motion of an object when not influenced by outside forces. Of course, essentially all objects are influenced by outside forces and the most important issues in the matter of mechanics is how objects move in that state. This problem is solved by Newton's second law of motion and famous and can be regarded as the laws of classical physics are most important.
The second law (as described dcngan matcmatik equation F = ma) provides that the acceleration of an object is equal to the net force divided by mass of the body. Newton's second law to add the famous third law of motion (assert that in every action, such as physical strength, there is a reaction similar to that conflict) as well as the most famous discovery of the scientific principle of universal law of gravity.
The fourth device of this law, if combined, would form a unified system applicable for the entire macro-mechanical systems, ranging from pergoyangan pendulum to move planets in orbit around the sun that can be supervised and his movements can be predicted. Newton did not just assign the laws of mechanics, but he himself also uses the tools of mathematical calculus, and show that the fundamental formulas can be used for solving problems.
Newton's laws can and have been used in large-scale scientific and technical areas of design of various equipment. In his lifetime, pemraktekan the most dramatic is in the field of astronomy. In this sector, even Newton stood at the front. In 1678 Newton published his famous book Principles of mathematical natural philosophy (usually summarized Principia only).
In it Newton put forward his theory of the law of gravity and the laws of motion. He shows how these laws can be used to estimate accurately the movements of planets around the sun. The main issue movements astronomy is how to estimate the exact position and movement-kemintang stars and planets, thus completely solved by Newton just a sambar. For his work that Newton is often considered the greatest astronomer of all the greatest.
What is our assessment of the significance of Newton scholarship? If we open the open the index encyclopedia of science, we will meet together with particulars regarding Newton's laws and its findings on two or three times more than the particulars of any scientist, too. Leibniz said the great scholars who did not even close to Newton has been involved in a heated argument: "Of all things related to mathematics from the developing world up to begin the Newton, that the best contribution."
Also praise given by the great French scholar, Laplace: "The book Principia Newton was far ahead of all the products of human genius in the world." And Langrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived. While Ernst Mach in his writing in 1901 said, "All of the mathematical problem is solved since the days of his life is the basis for the development of mechanics based on Newton's laws."
This may be a great discovery of Newton's most complicated: he found a container of separation between fact and law, able to describe some of the magic, but not much help to the allegations; he bequeathed to us the laws of the continuum that can be used for problems in space physics a very broad scope of confidential and contain the possibility to make the right guesses.
In this brief description, it is impossible to expose in detail the findings of Newton. As a result, many of the works rather less well known are forced to set aside even have an important meaning in terms of discoveries in the field of its own problems. Newton also made great contributions in the field of thermodynamics (the study of the heat) and in the field of acoustics (the science of sound).
And he also who presents a crystal clear explanation of how physical principles of "preservation" of the motion so as not to waste as well as "preservation" of the angular motion of something. Queue of the present invention can be further extended if you want: Newtonlah people who invented the binomial theorem in mathematics is very logical and accountable. Want to add anymore? He also, of none other than, the first to express the particulars conclusively the origin of the stars.
Now, look at from the point of the development of science. In the last five centuries, thanks to modern scientific discoveries, the way of everyday human life has experienced great revolution. How to dress differently, eat differently, how to work and manifold. In fact, the relaxed way of life lazed even not at all similar to what was done one time in 1500 AD. Scientific discoveries have revolutionized not only the technology and economics, but also completely change the political, religious thought, art and philosophy.
Very langkalah aspects of human life are still "squat in place" not moved an inch even in the presence of a scientific revolution. The reason is-once again for this reason that became the reason why so many scientists and inventors of new ideas contained in the register book. Newton not only the most intelligent among the ranks of intelligent brains of the brain, but at the same time he was the most influential in the development of scientific theory.
That's why he got the honor to occupy the sequence is almost the top of many of the most influential man in human history. Newton's final breath in 1727, was interred in Westminster Abbey, the first scientist to get that kind of respect.
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